Residency and Fellowship Programs
Residency programs typically accept candidates at PGY-1 level via a match, but can have unexpected openings at PGY-1, PGY-2, PGY-3 and other levels.
Several specialties start at PGY-2 level, and require completion of PGY-1 year in a clinical specialty such as in internal medicine, surgery, or transitional-year prior to start. These include Radiology, Anaesthesiology, Neurology, Nuclear Medicine, Psychiatry, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R), Urology, Ophthalmology, and Dermatology. Some of these require the clinical year to be specifically in internal medicine or surgery. Few of these advanced residency programs may offer an integrated PGY-1 year at the same institution.
Fellowship programs generally require prior completion of a specific residency. The prerequisite residency type is indicated below by the abbreviation in the parantheses. However, in very specific circumstances, it may be possible to start a fellowship without a residency, as "Alternate Pathway". This is occasionally available in Radiology to candidates who already qualify in that specialty in another country.